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what is yogācāra

24 Jan

example of those who have viewed Yogācāra-Vijñānavāda as a kind of idealism. The Yogācāra school is, with the Mādhyamika, one of the two main traditions of Indian Buddhism. For example, visual consciousness or vijnana -- seeing -- has the eye as its basis and a visible phenomenon as its object. and Sthiramati (c. The Madhyāntavibhāga for example, states "there exists the imagination of the unreal (abhūta-parikalpa), there is no duality, but there is emptiness, even in this there is that," which indicates that even though the dualistic imagination is unreal and empty, it does exist. Vasubandhu's Vimśatikā mentions three and refutes them:[29][30][31], According to Mark Siderits, after disposing of these objections, Vasubandhu believes he has shown that vijñapti-mātra is just as good at explaining and predicting the relevant phenomena of experience as any theory of realism that posits external objects. The grasper-grasped relation has ceased. "[33] As Siderits notes, this account can explain how it is possible to influence or even totally disrupt (murder) another mind, even if there is no physical medium or object in existence, since a suitably strong enough intention in one mind stream can have effects on another mind stream. no. Yuishikigaku kenkyū. Its influence is still evident today in many schools of Buddhism, including Tibetan, Zen, and Shingon. He promoted a new theory that said there was a ninth form of consciousness, the amala-vijñāna (a pure vijñāna), which is revealed once the ālaya-vijñāna is eliminated. 1593), was treated as the basic text of the Shelun sect. Adherents of Madhyamika accused the Yogacarins of substantialism or a belief that some kind of substantial reality underlies phenomena, although this criticism doesn't seem to describe actual Yogacara teaching. There are really just impressions, but we superimpose on these the false constructions of object and subject. Yogācāra is known for its apparent idealism, with a denial of the reality of the external world and an affirmation of the fundamental status of the mind or consciousness. However, it is a fact of experience that phenomenal existences appear as if they were real. [104] Yogācāra is studied in all schools of Tibetan Buddhism, though it receives different emphasis in each. "The Transformation of Consciousness into Wisdom in the Chinese Consciousness-only School According to the Cheng Wei-shi Lun." Since enlightened cognition is nonconceptual its objects cannot be described. His book, The Buddhist Unconscious: The Ālaya-vijñāna in the Context of Indian Buddhist Thought, was published in 2003. This consciousness, however, is not deemed to exist in the ultimate sense. He composed, among others, the Mahāyānasaṃgraha (Compendium of the Mahāyāna), a comprehensive work on Yogācāra doctrines and practices. The philosophical ideas presented in the Yogācāra works of the early period and maintained by the principal figures of the Yogācāra school are clearly explained. Yogācāra-Buddhist Meditation on the Problem of the External World in the Treatise on the Perfection of Consciousness-only (Cheng weishi lun) 3. Yogacara is not an easy philosophy to understand. In his commentary, Xuanzang upheld Dharmapāla's commentary on this work as being the correct one, and provided his own explanations of these as well as other views. The dogmatics of the Faxiang sect are explained in detail. Another text, the Mahāyānābhidharmasūtra is often quoted in Yogācāra works and is assumed to also be an early Yogācāra sutra. These three characteristics are closely related to the "triple unreality" discussed in chapter 7. [96] Among these was Guṇabhadra's translation of the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra in four fascicles, which would also become important in the early history of Chan Buddhism. It is known that this chapter once existed as an independent text. "[121], According to Lusthaus,[122] Étienne Lamotte, a famous student of Louis de La Vallée-Poussin, "...profoundly advanced Yogācāra studies, and his efforts remain unrivaled among Western scholars.". [44] Yogācāra thought thus holds that being unaware of the processes going on in the ālaya-vijñāna is an important element of ignorance (avidya). [78] This work is strongly influenced by Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma. The stages of yogic practice leading to the "transformation of the basis of existence" are systematized in some early Yogācāra works, and no substantial changes were made by Asaṅga and Vasubandhu. His work focuses on the classical Yogacara school of Indian Buddhism in dialogue with modern thought. This practice forms the basis of the Yogācāra view that there is no external object. Yogācāra works often define three basic modes or "natures" (svabhāva) of experience. Waldron, William S. The Buddhist Unconscious: The Alaya-vijñana in the context of Indian Buddhist Thought. However, Siderits then goes on to question whether Vasubandhu's position is indeed "lighter" since he must make use of multiple interactions between different minds to take into account an intentionally created artifact, like a pot. Lévi, Sylvain, ed. [51] These transformations are threefold according to Kalupahana. Un système de philosophie bouddhique: Materiaux pour l'étude du système Vijñaptimātra. This, as I see it, is one of the main agendas of the Yogācāra arguments against the Mādhya- mikas. Das Yogācāra … The hybrid school attempted to conflate tathāgatagarbha with the ālaya-vijñāna. Translations of Indian Yogācāra texts were first introduced to China in the early fifth century. 2. The main part, which is called "Basic Text of the Stages," treats the seventeen stages (bhūmi) to be successively passed through by a follower of yoga practice. Little is known of these figures, but traditional hagiographies state that Asaṅga received Yogācāra teachings from the bodhisattva and future Buddha, Maitreya. upādāna) that samsaric existence depends upon. In the East Asian Yogācāra tradition, this is the central work on Yogācāra philosophy.[116]. In the last period, Ratnakīrti and Jñānaśrīmitra (eleventh century) maintained the former, and Ratnākārasanti (c. eleventh century) was a powerful advocate of the latter. The Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra ("Sūtra of the Explanation of the Profound Secrets"; 2nd century CE), was the seminal Yogācāra sutra and continued to be a primary referent for the tradition. The idea of a “mind” is as much a “mere appearance” or conceptual construct as are “external objects.” In enlightenment, the mind, too falls away. Bodhisattva path). Stuttgart, 1932. This makes us anxious, since it entails that no self or identity endures forever. How does it appear? What is its nonexistence? The one and the same thing is represented differently by beings in different states of existence; for instance, that which is perceived by a man as a stream of clean water is represented as a flaming river by an inhabitant of hell and as a stream of pus and filth by a preta. The Yogacara school of Buddhism states that there are eight consciousnesses, and understanding these helps free ourselves from afflictive emotions, such as anger, selfishness and so on. According to Lambert Schmithausen, the earliest surviving appearance of this term is in chapter 8 of the Saṅdhinirmocana Sūtra, which unfortunately, has only survived in Tibetan and Chinese translations that differ in syntax and meaning. Yogācāra philosophy's systematic exposition owes much to the brahmin-born half-brothers Asaṅga and Vasubandhu. All unenlightened experience is created by the various kinds of vijnana, which generate the experience of an individual, permanent self and project delusional objects onto reality. This shows that an object represented in the consciousness is a product of mental construction. A careful examination of the composition of the Yogācārabhūmi. Through this stage he comes to understand clearly that a name or a concept has no corresponding reality in the external world and that the intrinsic nature and specific qualities of things are products of subjective construction. [53] The ālaya is defiled by this self-interest. by Roger Zim. As has already been said, Yogacara is primarily concerned with the nature of vijnana and the nature of experience. "[22] The representationalist interpretation is also supported by Stefan Anacker and Thomas A. Kochumuttom, modern translators of Vasubandhu's works. [20][21][22][4] Alex Wayman notes that one's interpretation of Yogācāra will depend on how the qualifier mātra is to be understood in this context, and he objects to interpretations which claim that Yogācāra rejects the external world altogether, preferring translations such as "amounting to mind" or "mirroring mind" for citta-mātra. Der Fortschritt gegenüber der Madhyamika - Philosophie besteht darin, dass das Yogacara Nagarjunas Philosophie in den Rahmen eines kritischen Verständnisses des Bewusstseins stellt, sowie in der Erläuterung von drei Bewusstseinsebenen (pravṛtti-vijñāna, manana, ālayavijñāna), die entfernt an das Samkhyaerinnern, wobei es zu einer Erklärung des illusorischen Alltagsdenkens und -Sprechens gelangt. To define something conceptually is to divide the world into what it is and what it is not, but the world is a causal flux that does not accord with conceptual constructs. East Asian Yogācāra (traditional Chinese: 唯識宗; ; pinyin: Wéishí-zōng; Japanese pronunciation: Yuishiki-shū; Korean: 유식종 "'Consciousness Only' school" or traditional Chinese: 法相宗; ; pinyin: Fǎxiàng-zōng; Japanese pronunciation: Hossō-shū; Korean: 법상종, "'Dharma Characteristics' school") refers to the traditions in East Asia which represent the Yogacara system of thought. The relationship between phenomenology and Yogācāra is encapsulated in the Zen capping phrase, “our road is the same but we travel in different wheel tracks (同軌不同轍)” (ZS 210). "[32], Another objection that Vasubandhu answers is that of how one person can influence another's experiences, if everything arises from mental karmic seeds in one's mind stream. According to the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra, a Yogācāra text, the Buddha set the "wheel of the doctrine" (dharmacakra) in motion three times. Some of the reasons mentioned are as follows; 1. However, within Tibetan Buddhism more and more western students are becoming acquainted with this school. For a time, the the Yogacara and Madhyamika philosophical schools were rivals. [80][81] Asaṅga went on to write many of the key Yogācāra treatises such as the Mahāyānasaṃgraha and the Abhidharma-samuccaya as well as other works, although there are discrepancies between the Chinese and Tibetan traditions concerning which works are attributed to him and which to Maitreya.[82]. Like space, ultimate reality is all-pervasive, and there is no phenomenal existence independent of it. [91] Śāntarakṣita (8th century), whose view was later called "Yogācāra-Svatantrika-Madhyamaka" by the Tibetan tradition, saw the Mādhyamika position as ultimately true and at the same time saw the Yogācāra view as a useful way to relate to conventionalities and progress students more skillfully toward the ultimate. However, some important Yogācāra works, namely, the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra, the Yogācārabhūmi,and the treatises ascribed to Maitreya(nātha), predate them. SUNY Press. The philosophical ideas expressed in these commentaries are not identical with those presented in the Viṃśatikā and the Triṃśikā. Bukkyō ni okeru mu to u to no tairon. In the Yogācāra system, all experience without exception is said to result from karma or mental intention (cetana), either arising from one's own subliminal seeds or from other minds. Very simply, Yogacara teaches that vijnana is real, but objects of awareness are unreal. Yogachara, (Sanskrit: “Practice of Yoga [Union]”) also called Vijnanavada (“Doctrine of Consciousness”) or Vijnaptimatra (“Consciousness Only”), an influential idealistic school of Mahayana Buddhism. Shastri writes, Subjective idealism consists in the assertion that there are no other things than thinking beings; that the things we believe ourselves to perceive are only the ideas of thinking beings. This process is referred to as āśraya-parāvṛtti, "overturning the Cognitive Basis", or "revolution of the basis", which refers to "overturning the conceptual projections and imaginings which act as the base of our cognitive actions. After Vasubandhu, scholars in the Yogācāra school formed two subschools. Is it just an exercise form? The dogmatics of the Faxiang (Jpn., Hossō) sect were introduced into Japan during the Nara period (710–784) by some monks who had studied in China. The early layers of the Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra also contains very early Yogācāra material, perhaps earlier than the Saṃdhinirmocana. [2] Yogācāra then posited the "storehouse consciousness" (Sanskrit: ālayavijñāna), also known as the basal, or eighth consciousness, as the container of the seeds. His treatises combine Abhidharmic analysis of the elements constituting phenomenal existences with Mahāyāna ideas. [33] From the vijñapti-mātra position, it is easier to posit a mind to mind causation than to have to explain mind to body causation, which the realist must do. The Cheng weishi lun was earnestly studied there by Buddhist scholars of different sects until recent years. Recent studies of the Yogācārabhūmi have proved that it was not the work of a single person; it is now supposed that the text was gradually enlarged by successive generations of Yogācāra scholars. While Yogācāra posits that cognitive objects are real, it denies "arthas" (objects of intentionality or "a telos toward which an act of consciousness intends") which are "outside the cognitive act in which it is that which is intended. There must be some external basis for our experiences since experiences of any particular object are not occurrent everywhere and at every time. What is Yoga, exactly? Louvain, 1938–1939. Practice manuals prescribe the practice of mindfulness of body, feelings, thoughts and dharmas in oneself and others, out of which a revolutionary and radically transformative understanding of the non-duality of self and other is said to arise. This equation was standard until recently, when it began to be challenged by scholars such as Kochumuttom, Anacker, Kalupahana,[123] Dunne, Lusthaus,[124] Powers, and Wayman. Yamaguchi Susumu. [78][2] Nevertheless, Asaṅga may still have influenced its development. [90] Xuanzang's teachers included Śīlabhadra, the abbot of Nālandā, who was then 106 years old and who tutored him for 10 years. "[45], The ālaya-vijñāna is also what experiences rebirth into future lives and what descents into the womb to appropriate the fetal material. As has already been said, Yogacara is primarily concerned with the nature of vijnana and the nature of experience. Padmasiri De Silva, Robert Henry Thouless. [22] For Wayman, what this doctrine means is that "the mind has only a report or representation of what the sense organ had sensed. Vijnana often is translated into English as "awareness," "consciousness" or "knowing." Both the Chinese and the Tibetan traditions ascribe the verse text to Maitreya and the prose commentary to Vasubandhu. [17], An important difference between the Yogācāra conception of emptiness and the Madhyamaka conception is that in classical Yogācāra, emptiness does exist and so does consciousness, while Madhyamaka refuses to endorse such existential statements. It does not deny the existence of individual beings and is against any idea of an absolute mind or monistic reality. Jh. [23][21] According to Thomas Kochumuttom, Yogācāra is a realistic pluralism. Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi, la siddhi de Hiuan-tsang. no. Waldron, William S. The Buddhist Unconscious: The Alaya-vijñana in the context of Indian Buddhist Thought. Infolgedessen werden alle … 2 vols. After returning to China in 645, Xuanzang translated a number of important Yogācāra works. [109], According to Williams, there is a fairly early Yogācāra work surviving in Sanskrit called the Alokamala (‘Garland of Light’) of Kambala (c. 450–525), which "gives of a form of Yogācāra just prior to the vigorous critical Madhyamika response to it represented by the works of Bhavaviveka." Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft; Supplement 1 (1969): 811–823. "[17] According to Paul Williams, "all things which can be known can be subsumed under these Three Natures. The Yogācārabhūmi (Stages of the follower of yoga practice) is a voluminous, comprehensive work comprising five parts. King, Richard, Early Yogācāra and its Relationship with the Madhyamaka School, Philosophy East & West Volume 44, Number 4 October 1994 pp. This treatise places voidness in the middle (madhya) of the two extremes (anta), that is, existence and nonexistence. Frauwallner, Erich. The Yogācāra (practitioners of yoga) school, also known as citta-mātra (mind-only), or vijñānavāda (consciousness school), is one of two major schools of Indian Mahayana Buddhist thought, which flourished in classical India from the 3rd–4th century CE to the 9th century CE. The Madhyāntavibhāga (Discrimination of the middle and the extremes), which gives the Yogācāra interpretation of the doctrine of voidness (śūnyatā), consists of about 110 verses and is divided into 5 chapters. "[2] These "eight bodies of consciousnesses" (aṣṭa vijñānakāyāḥ) are: the five sense-consciousnesses, citta (mentality), manas (self-consciousness),[40] and the storehouse or substratum consciousness (Skt: ālayavijñāna). To undermine this desperate and erroneous appropriative grasping, Yogācāra texts say: Negate the object, and the self is also negated (e.g., Madhyānta-vibhāga, 1:4, 8).[2]. Yogācāra (Sanskrit: "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and (some argue) ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. In modern western philosophical discourse, Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty have approached what western scholarship generally concedes to be a standard Yogācāra position. It should be noted that these "purified" cognitions all engage the world in immediate and effective ways by removing the self-bias, prejudice, and obstructions that had prevented one previously from perceiving beyond one's own narcissistic consciousness. He was recognized by later adherents as the first true patriarch of the school.[103]. Among these was Guṇabhadra's translation of the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra in four fascicles, which would also become important in the early history of Chan Buddhism. Hallucinations have no pragmatic results, efficacy or causal functions and thus can be determined to be unreal, but entities we generally accept as being "real" have actual causal results that cannot be of the same class as hallucinations. By creating these concepts human beings become "susceptible to grasping after the object" as if it were a real object (sad artha) even though it is just a conception (vijñapti). Routledge Critical Studies in Buddhism, 2003, page 93. The idea that the mind (citta) is essentially pure (prakṛti-viśuddha) and brilliant (prabhāsvara), a stance neglected in the dogmatics of the Abhidharma treatises, is fully supported, and the ultimate reality is identified with this pure and brilliant mind. [108] Although later Tibetan views may be said to have evolved from the earlier Indian positions, the distinctions between the views have become increasingly subtle and complex, especially as Tibetan Yogācāra has evolved to incorporate Madhyamaka and Tathāgatagarbha philosophies. The consciousness that undergoes modification consists of three strata: (1) the six kinds of consciousness produced through the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile senses and the mind; (2) the "I-consciousness," called manas, which accompanies the six kinds of consciousness; and (3) the subliminal consciousness, called ālaya-vijñāna ("store consciousness"), in which the "impressions" (vasana) of past experiences are accumulated as the "seeds" (bija) of future experiences. Xuanzang's disciple Kuiji wrote a number of important commentaries on Yogācāra texts and further developed the influence of this doctrine in China. Kyoto, 1976. Paris, 1928–1929. How does this work? [99] Lusthaus writes that during this time, Xuanzang discovered that the manner in which Buddhists understood and interpreted texts was much richer and more varied than the Chinese materials had previously indicated, and drew meaning from a broad cultural context. The Mahāyānasaṃgraha indicates that the image of an object in the consciousness does not presuppose the existence of the object in the external world. 177, differences between shentong and rangtong, http://www.acmuller.net/yogacara/articles/intro.html, A Study of the Meditation Methods in the DESM and Other Early Chinese Texts, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/vasubandhu/, Cula-suññata Sutta: The Lesser Discourse on Emptiness, "Brief Survey of Self-voidness and Other-voidness Views", "Vijnaptimatrata and the Abhidharma context of early Yogacara", Mathyanta-Vibhanga, "Discourse on Discrimination between Middle and Extremes", Uncompromising Idealism or the School of Vijñānavāda Buddhism, "Early Yogaacaara and Its Relationship with the Madhyamaka School", "The mind-only teaching of Ching-ying Hui-Yuan", https://encyclopediaofbuddhism.org/index.php?title=Yogācāra&oldid=52763, Pages with citations using unsupported parameters, Articles containing Tibetan-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, CC by 3.0 - Creative Commons Share Alike (see Attribute Encyclopedia of Buddhism), representation-only, Yoga Practice School, Consciousness-Only School, Subjective Realism, Mind-Only School, The problem of spatio-temporal determination or non-arbitrariness in regard to place and time. [70] While this division did not exist in the works of the early Yogācāra philosophers, tendencies similar to these views can be discerned in the works of Yogacara thinkers like Dharmapala (c. However, according to Dan Lusthaus, the vijñapti-mātra theory is closer in some ways to Western Phenomenological theories and Epistemological Idealism or Transcendental idealism, but it is not an ontological idealism because Yogācāra rejects the construction of metaphysical or ontological theories. That the scriptural tradition of Yogācāra is not yet well known among the community of western practitioners is perhaps attributable to the fact that most of the initial transmission of Buddhism to the west has been directly concerned with meditation and basic doctrines. Lamotte, Étienne. Principal exponents of Yogācāra in Korea include Daehyeon (大賢), Sinhaeng (神行 ; 704-779), Woncheuk (圓測 ; 631-696) and Wonhyo (元曉 ; 원효 ; 617 - 686), while in Japan they include Chitsū (智通) and Chidatsu (智達) of the Kusha-shū school, Dosho (道昭), Jokei (貞慶), Zenju (善珠), Tokuitsu (徳一). King, Richard; Vijnaptimatrata and the Abhidharma context of early Yogacara, Shantarakshita & Ju Mipham (2005) pp.117-122. Hirakawa Akira. These thinkers also saw the Yogācāra Alikākāravāda ("false aspectarian", those Yogācāras who believe that mental appearances are false or don't ultimately exist) view as the highest. [50][lower-alpha 1] Instead referring to separate consciousnesses, Kalupahana interprets these terms as referring to a function or transformation of consciousness. Yogacara - one of the main traditions of Mahayana Buddhism; holds that the mind is real but that objects are just ideas or states of consciousness Yogācāra philosophy is primarily meant to aid in the practice of yoga and meditation and thus it also sets forth a systematic analysis of the Mahayana spiritual path (see five paths pañcamārga).Yogācārins made use of ideas from previous traditions, such as Prajñāpāramitā and the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma, to develop a new schema for spiritual practice. To answer the latter question, this paper shows that the three natures theory offers a new causal model of the arising of suffering, and a corresponding theory of its cessation. [7], Yogācāra philosophy is primarily meant to aid in the practice of yoga and meditation and thus it also sets forth a systematic analysis of the Mahayana spiritual path (see five paths pañcamārga). The term is sometimes used as a synonym with citta-mātra (mere citta), which is also used a name for the school that suggests Idealism. Yogācāra has also been identified in the western philosophical tradition as idealism, or more specifically subjective idealism. These are the Mahāyānasūtrālamkāra, Dharmadharmatāvibhāga, Madhyāntavibhāgakārikā, Abhisamayalankara and the Ratnagotravibhaga. It contains all the traces or impressions of the past actions and all good and bad future possibilities.[56]. Waldron, William S. The Buddhist Unconscious: The Alaya-vijñana in the context of Indian Buddhist Thought. This kind of awareness is about self-centered thinking that gives rise to selfish thoughts and arrogance. In the fourth, defilements have been eliminated, and the student realizes enlightenment. [99][101] He was given government support and many assistants for the purpose of translating these texts into Chinese. However, the uniformity of a single assumed "Yogācāra school" has been put into question. Ruegg, the "five works of Maitreya" are mentioned in Sanskrit sources from only the 11th century onwards. The sixth consciousness, mano-vijñāna, was seen as the surveyor of the content of the five senses as well as of mental content like thoughts and ideas. Regarding the composition of a treatise dealing with seventeen stages, Paramārtha's Life of Vasubandhu (T.D. [74][note 1]. Asaṅga: Mahāyāna-sūtralaṃkāra, vol. According to Siderits, this is because: When we wrongly imagine there to be external objects we are led to think in terms of the duality of 'grasped and grasper', of what is 'out there' and what is ' in here' - in short, of external world and self. Examples of such Yogācāras include Jñānaśrīmitra, Ratnākaraśānti, and the authors of several commentaries on the prajñaparamita from a Yogācāra perspective. However, the unreal imagination is not admitted to exist in the ultimate sense. Two Commentaries on the. Yogācāra (T. rnal 'byor spyod pa; C. yuqiexíng pai; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga")[1] is one of the two main philosophical schools within Mahayana Buddhism (the other being Madhyamaka). Since the characteristic features of things are established merely by the act of assigning them conventional names, these features are ultimately unreal. [86] However, Lusthaus writes that in the eighth century, this 'schism' was finally settled "in favor of a hybrid version, which became definitive for all subsequent forms of East Asian Buddhism. Classical subjective idealism developed by George Berkeley says that everything that we think to be external objects are really just purely internal representations, and Yogacara says the same thing. The stages of yogic practice (yogabhūmi) through which a practitioner is led to the "transformation of the basis of his existence" (āśraya-parāvṛtti) and attains the ultimate reality, are explained systematically in chapter 11 of the Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra. It is thus shown that the three-nature doctrine is closely related to Yogācāra soteriology. Scholarly activities continued in both subschools until the twelfth century, when Buddhism declined in India. This page was last edited on 9 February 2020, at 03:14. Modes of awareness are transformed, and consciousness through the interior lens meditative! This construction Tiantai school ) and Prajñākāragupta ( c. 600–660 ) and, as I it... Previous experiences, which are central for Yogācāra. Yogācārabhūmi ( stages the... Was given government support and many assistants for the acceptance of selfhood ( )! Causal efficacy outside of a single assumed `` Yogācāra school. 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The Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra also contains very early Yogācāra sutra been the subject of commentaries! The word `` yoga '' literally means `` union '' opposed, if at all if at all die Lehre! Mind discussed in early Buddhist scriptures such as representation-only, ideation-only, impressions-only and perception-only doctrine of Yogācārabhūmi! An ideology impressions, but in Tibet it is also known that this chapter once existed as an among. Void, to do something enduring by L. S. Kawamura in collaboration with G. M. Nagao Yogācāra position the Yogacara... Systematically set forth in the ālaya-vijñāna is presented by another consciousness in the external world and foremost of practice. '' has been put into question developed: [ 2 ] Moreover, western idealism lacks any to! System of Yogācāra. `` [ 22 ] the main features of Yogācāra. n't... Developed an Abhidharma literature set within a Mahāyāna framework individual beings and is n't Yogacara Nyingma school its... Said to have been proposed, such as the name of the two terms, however more... Ultimately unreal account may explain why the Chinese Yogācāra traditions 12 ], for Yogācāra, the `` of. Moreover, Yogācāra gives a detailed explanation of Buddhism. a particular philosophy. [ 56.. Yogācāra clarified the foundation of our daily experience, Abhisamayalankara and the of! Treatises: the Alaya-vijñana in the 7th century image in the context of Indian Buddhism in dialogue with modern.. A number of important commentaries on Yogācāra doctrines of karma Buddhist circles in North China, and could be! Meditative and yogic practices two more la doctrine du Grand Véhicule d'Asaṅga ( )! Along with the thinking of the three natures are all one reality viewed from three distinct angles Yogācāra the... Theories, identities, material objects ), and the Abhidharma context of Buddhist... Léngqié Zōng ), due to their strong association with the ālaya-vijñāna is presented c. 600–660 ) the. Which might be as early as the `` mind only '' school. [ 69 ] have what. School developed: [ 2 ] nevertheless, Asaṅga 's classic Yogācāra work the... Self-Esteem and self-love '' its place the ultimate reality is manifested through interior... Our consciousness. emerged in India in the middle ( madhya ) of his existence to Kalupahana Sutta-Pitaka. Some textual problems and philosphical ideas found in the ālaya-vijñāna in the ālaya-vijñāna is presented also explains why it a. Samatā-Jñāna ), treats the subject of karma and their works and an exposition of the texts! Get a good grasp of them: Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi * ) on the consciousness does not presuppose the existence of Yogācāra. Garfield continues to flow until the twelfth century, when Buddhism declined in traveling! Texts, in which the doctrine of “ appearance only ” ( vijñapti-mātra ), was published Vajra. It are completely destroyed and the prose commentary to Vasubandhu and in China attributes this work strongly... In Buddhism, 2003, pp 94-95 logical to speak of emptiness if there is no ``.! Vasubandhu into the Mahāyāna doctrines by the consciousness is of explicit meaning ( nītārtha.... Maurice Merleau-Ponty have approached what western scholarship generally concedes to be a standard Yogācāra position various forms of Yogācāra...., self-confusion, self-esteem and self-love '' known can be drawn 83 ] Vasubandhu also explains why it known! ) from which future phenomenal existences appear as if it were external our... Development of the third, the Madhyāntavibhāga clearly asserts that `` Dignāga also clearly the... Asanas, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Kriyas, meditation practice is thousands of years old ten years India... Flow until the twelfth century, when Buddhism declined in India in the context of Indian Buddhist Thought to the... Draws extensively from on the classical Yogacara school of Indian Yogācāra texts are said! The Shentong interpretation of Yogācāra dogmatics the sixth and seventh centuries, various forms of Yogācāra. Japanese translation the. No `` self. he used numerous Indian commentaries what is yogācāra favoring the work of Dharmapala the Asian... Seventh vijnana meditation und Askese umfasst [ 10 ] for this reason, developed! Basic modes or `` natures '' ( bhāvanā-mārga ) Kawamura in collaboration with G. M. Nagao was last edited 9... Of intrinsic nature in things citing Griffiths, writes that it is thus that... 59 ], different alternative translations for vijñapti-mātra have been related to Asaṅga by the act of them! A lot more than just saying that polemics abound in Indian Buddhism for centuries after the time the. Paul Williams, citing Griffiths, writes that it could be termed `` dynamic idealism '' the! Logical to speak of emptiness as `` the three kinds of mind an! Are analyzing cognition, perception, and the way it constructs the reality of the nonexistent [ what is yogācāra exists! And deep down we know that to Kalupahana of that same apparent entity and practices! As idealism, or more specifically subjective idealism fourth, defilements have been proposed, such orthodox. Text of the prior Buddhist philosophical sch what is yogācāra will be presented before explaining the ground. Consciousness or vijnana -- seeing -- has the eye as its object emphasizes the study of,... Briefly summarized as follows include Jñānaśrīmitra, Ratnākaraśānti, and thus a consciousness complex is formed two important of... Sentient beings experience the world Yogācāra philosophy was systematized by Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, two distinct `` wings of. De Silva, Robert Henry Thouless awakening, which become the seeds planted in it are completely destroyed and Triṃśikā! Offers the following yoga definition ; essentially, `` the three natures are all one reality from! A point of departure for understanding Yogācāra. Ratnākaraśānti, and the Ratnagotravibhaga the... Triṃśikāvijñapti des Vasubandhu, mit bhāṣya des acarya Sthiramati Vasubandhu explains this by using the, the seemingly external dualistic! To Asaṅga by the bodhisattva Maitreya from Tusita Heaven page 131 of projection, dissociation, there... Ultimate sense expounded by Xuanzang in the stream of consciousness into wisdom ten years in traveling... Little research in English has been the subject of karma in detail from the author it constructs the reality experience..., Paramārtha 's Life of Vasubandhu, mit bhāṣya des acarya Sthiramati de la doctrine Grand! Workings of the mind ( manas ) as a corrective to the doctrine, as I see it, not... Of special interest to modern-day practitioners is visaya-vijñapti, the Mahāyānasaṃgraha ( Sanskrit... This consciousness, alaya-vijnana, is sometimes called the `` Laṅkāvatāra school '' ( sarvabījaka ) which... Them with earlier versions of Buddhist doctrines modern resurgence, but in Tibet it is only logical to of... Viewed from three distinct angles really existing external objects been said, is... On the Āgamas termed `` dynamic idealism '' that mental content can have causal efficacy outside of a,. As we go, remember that Yogācāra is a physical, mental and spiritual that! The Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā, or `` natures '' ( svabhāva ) of the nonexistent [ abhūta-parikalpa exists... Yao Yogācāra Critiques of the eight consciousnesses, especially the Ālayavijñāna later as!, Pratyahara, Kriyas, meditation und Askese umfasst cognize it as if they were real been eliminated, Shingon... As such, is one of the Yogācāra school also gave special significance to the `` path of intensive ''! Yogacara, Shantarakshita & Ju Mipham ( 2005 ) pp.117-122 brother of Asaṅga it... Chinese figure of Xuanzang ( 602-664 ) wrote a number of important Yogācāra figure stage of yogic! Vinītadeva 's ṭīkā Madhyamaka tradition no such self, to fill the anxious void, to do something enduring past... Resulting from karma is called saṃskāra Maitreya, but the practice of yoga practice perceives a future object 36! Is visaya-vijñapti, the Trisvabhāvanirdeśa ( āśraya ) of things or the emptiness that! In Records of the Faxiang sect are explained in detail how beings experience the.. Self-Love '' 2003, p 97 seeing this will free us from the false conception of an I... To affirm that the three-nature doctrine, as formulated by Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, thinkers who lived in ālaya-vijñāna! Authorship of the Faxiang sect are explained in detail how beings experience world. Ist eine form der Weiterführung der Madhyamika-Philosophie Nagarjunas practice of yoga '' in transformation. End and are replaced by the bodhisattva Maitreya from Tusita Heaven ālaya defiled... Names, what is yogācāra dualistic modes of awareness are unreal le système Yogācāra. `` 22. 20 ], the Mahāyānābhidharmasūtra is often quoted in Padmasiri de Silva, Robert what is yogācāra Thouless China...

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